Atom bomb successfully tested 1945
On this day in 1945, at 5:29:45 a.m., the Manhattan Project comes to an explosive end as the first atom bomb is successfully tested in Alamogordo, New Mexico.
Plans for the creation of a uranium bomb by the Allies were established as early as 1939, when Italian emigre physicist Enrico Fermi met with U.S. Navy department officials at Columbia University to discuss the use of fissionable materials for military purposes. That same year, Albert Einstein wrote to President Franklin Roosevelt supporting the theory that an uncontrolled nuclear chain reaction had great potential as a basis for a weapon of mass destruction. In February 1940, the federal government granted a total of $6,000 for research. But in early 1942, with the United States now at war with the Axis powers, and fear mounting that Germany was working on its own uranium bomb, the War Department took a more active interest, and limits on resources for the project were removed.
Brigadier-General Leslie R. Groves, himself an engineer, was now in complete charge of a project to assemble the greatest minds in science and discover how to harness the power of the atom as a means of bringing the war to a decisive end. The Manhattan Project (so-called because of where the research began) would wind its way through many locations during the early period of theoretical exploration, most importantly, the University of Chicago, where Enrico Fermi successfully set off the first fission chain reaction. But the Project took final form in the desert of New Mexico, where, in 1943, Robert J. Oppenheimer began directing Project Y at a laboratory at Los Alamos, along with such minds as Hans Bethe, Edward Teller, and Fermi. Here theory and practice came together, as the problems of achieving critical mass-a nuclear explosion-and the construction of a deliverable bomb were worked out.
Finally, on the morning of July 16,in the New Mexico desert120 miles south of Santa Fe, the first atomic bomb was detonated. The scientists and a few dignitaries had removed themselves 10,000 yards away to observe as the first mushroom cloud of searing light stretched 40,000 feet into the air and generated the destructive power of 15,000 to 20,000 tons of TNT. The tower on which the bomb sat when detonated was vaporized.
The question now became-on whom was the bomb to be dropped? Germany was the original target, but the Germans had already surrendered. The only belligerent remaining was Japan.
A footnote: The original $6,000 budget for the Manhattan Project finally ballooned to a total cost of $2 billion.
(More Events on This Day in History)
- 1779 Anthony Wayne earns nickname
- 1935 World’s first parking meter installed
- 1863 Draft riots continue to rock New York City
- 1945 United States conducts first test of the atomic bomb
- 1979 An army doctor is accused of stabbing his family to death
- 1990 Earthquake wreaks havoc in the Philippines
- 1769 First Catholic mission in California dedicated
- 1969 Apollo 11 departs Earth
- 1995 Amazon opens for business
- 1999 JFK Jr. killed in plane crash
- 1967 Funnyman Will Ferrell born
- 1951 Catcher in the Rye is published
- 1966 Tommy James and the Shondells are rescued from oblivion by their #1 hit “Hanky Panky”
- 1808 Lewis and Clark help form Missouri Fur Company
- 1790 Congress declares Washington, D.C., new capital
- 2002 Bush unveils strategy for homeland security
- 1948 Durocher leaves Dodgers to manage Giants
- 1965 McNamara visits South Vietnam
- 1973 Senate begins investigations into secret bombing of Cambodia
World War I
- 1918 Romanov family executed
World War II
- 1940 Marshal Petain becomes premier of occupied France
- 1945 The first atomic bomb test is successfully exploded