Civil war erupts in Rwanda 1994
On this day in 1994, Rwandan armed forces kill 10 Belgian peacekeeping officers in a successful effort to discourage international intervention in the genocide that had begun only hours earlier. In approximately three months, the Hutu extremists who controlled Rwanda brutally murdered an estimated 500,000 to 1 million innocent civilian Tutsis and moderate Hutus in the worst episode of ethnic genocide since World War II.
The immediate roots of the 1994 genocide dated back to the early 1990s, when President Juvenal Habyarimana, a Hutu, began using anti-Tutsi rhetoric to consolidate his power among the Hutus. Beginning in October 1990, there were several massacres of hundreds of Tutsis. Although the two ethnic groups were very similar, sharing the same language and culture for centuries, the law required registration based on ethnicity. The government and army began to assemble the Interahamwe (meaning “those who attack together”) and prepared for the elimination of the Tutsis by arming Hutus with guns and machetes. In January 1994, the United Nations forces in Rwanda warned that larger massacres were imminent.
On April 6, 1994, President Habyarimana was killed when his plane was shot down. It is not known if the attack was carried out by the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), a Tutsi military organization stationed outside the country at the time, or by Hutu extremists trying to instigate a mass killing. In any event, Hutu extremists in the military, led by Colonel Theoneste Bagosora, immediately went into action, murdering Tutsis and moderate Hutus within hours of the crash.
The Belgian peacekeepers were killed the next day, a key factor in the withdrawal of U.N. forces from Rwanda. Soon afterward, the radio stations in Rwanda were broadcasting appeals to the Hutu majority to kill all Tutsis in the country. The army and the national police directed the slaughter, sometimes threatening Hutu civilians when persuasion didn’t work. Thousands of innocent people were hacked to death with machetes by their neighbors. Despite the horrific crimes, the international community, including the United States, hesitated to take any action. They wrongly ascribed the genocide to chaos amid tribal war. President Bill Clinton later called America’s failure to do anything to stop the genocide “the biggest regret” of his administration.
It was left to the RPF, led by Paul Kagame, to begin an ultimately successful military campaign for control of Rwanda. By the summer, the RPF had defeated the Hutu forces and driven them out of the country and into several neighboring nations. However, by that time, an estimated 75 percent of the Tutsis living in Rwanda had been murdered.
(More Events on This Day in History)
- 1776 U.S. Navy captures first British warship
- 1947 Auto pioneer Henry Ford dies
- 1862 Battle of Shiloh concludes
- 1954 Eisenhower gives famous “domino theory” speech
- 1994 The Rwandan genocide
- 1990 Twin ferry accidents on opposite ends of world
- 1953 Hammarskjold elected U.N. head
- 1963 Tito is made president for life
- 2012 Longtime “60 Minutes” journalist Mike Wallace dies
- 1970 John Wayne wins Best Actor Oscar
- 1770 William Wordsworth is born
- 1920 Indian sitar legend Ravi Shankar is born
- 1805 Lewis and Clark depart Fort Mandan
- 1961 JFK lobbies Congress to help save historic sites in Egypt
- 1873 John McGraw, second all-time winningest baseball manager, is born
- 1975 North Vietnamese forces begin preparations for final offensive
World War I
- 1918 Winston Churchill urges talks with Russia
World War II
- 1939 Italy invades Albania
- 1945 Japanese battleship Yamato is sunk by Allied forces