Barbie makes her debut 1959
Eleven inches tall, with a waterfall of blond hair, Barbie was the first mass-produced toy doll in the United States with adult features. The woman behind Barbie was Ruth Handler, who co-founded Mattel, Inc. with her husband in 1945. After seeing her young daughter ignore her baby dolls to play make-believe with paper dolls of adult women, Handler realized there was an important niche in the market for a toy that allowed little girls to imagine the future.
Barbie’s appearance was modeled on a doll named Lilli, based on a German comic strip character. Originally marketed as a racy gag gift to adult men in tobacco shops, the Lilli doll later became extremely popular with children. Mattel bought the rights to Lilli and made its own version, which Handler named after her daughter, Barbara. With its sponsorship of the “Mickey Mouse Club” TV program in 1955, Mattel became the first toy company to broadcast commercials to children. They used this medium to promote their new toy, and by 1961, the enormous consumer demand for the doll led Mattel to release a boyfriend for Barbie. Handler named him Ken, after her son. Barbie’s best friend, Midge, came out in 1963; her little sister, Skipper, debuted the following year.
Over the years, Barbie generated huge sales–and a lot of controversy. On the positive side, many women saw Barbie as providing an alternative to traditional 1950s gender roles. She has had a series of different jobs, from airline stewardess, doctor, pilot and astronaut to Olympic athlete and even U.S. presidential candidate. Others thought Barbie’s never-ending supply of designer outfits, cars and “Dream Houses” encouraged kids to be materialistic. It was Barbie’s appearance that caused the most controversy, however. Her tiny waist and enormous breasts–it was estimated that if she were a real woman, her measurements would be 36-18-38–led many to claim that Barbie provided little girls with an unrealistic and harmful example and fostered negative body image.
Despite the criticism, sales of Barbie-related merchandise continued to soar, topping 1 billion dollars annually by 1993. Since 1959, more than 800 million dolls in the Barbie family have been sold around the world and Barbie is now a bona fide global icon.
(More Events on This Day in History)
- 1781 Spanish siege of Pensacola begins
- 1985 First Adopt-a-Highway sign goes up
- 1862 U.S.S. Monitor battles C.S.S. Virginia
- 1954 Republican senators criticize Joseph McCarthy
- 1997 Rapper Notorious B.I.G. is killed in Los Angeles
- 1981 Japanese power plant leaks radioactive waste
- 1841 Supreme Court rules on Amistad mutiny
- 1847 U.S. forces land at Vera Cruz
- 1862 Battle of the Ironclads
- 1916 Pancho Villa raids U.S.
- 1932 China’s last emperor is Japanese puppet
- 1996 Comedian George Burns dies at age 100
- 1913 Virginia Woolf delivers her first novel, The Voyage Out
- 1997 Christopher Wallace—a.k.a. The Notorious B.I.G.—is killed in Los Angeles
- 1916 Pancho Villa attacks Columbus, New Mexico
- 1954 Eisenhower criticizes McCarthy
- 1943 Bobby Fischer born
- 1965 Marines continue to land at Da Nang
- 1970 Marines hand over control of I Corps region
World War I
- 1916 Germany declares war on Portugal
World War II
- 1945 Firebombing of Tokyo