1522 Marten Luther begins preaching his Invocavit Sermons in the German city of Wittenberg
1776 Publication of the influential economics book "The Wealth of Nations" by Adam Smith
1918 Russian Bolshevik Party becomes the Communist Party
1933 US Congress is called into special session by FDR, beginning its "100 days"
1961 Soviet flight Sputnik 9 carries and returns a dog named Chernushka (Blackie), frogs and a guinea pig from orbit