Galileo in Rome for Inquisition 1633
On this day in 1633, Italian philosopher, astronomer and mathematician Galileo Galilei arrives in Rometo face charges of heresy for advocating Copernican theory, which holds that the Earth revolves around the Sun. Galileo officially faced the Roman Inquisition in April of that same year and agreed to plead guilty in exchange for a lighter sentence. Put under house arrest indefinitely by Pope Urban VIII, Galileo spent the rest of his days at his villa in Arcetri, near Florence, before dying on January 8, 1642.
Galileo, the son of a musician, was born February 15, 1564, in Pisa, Italy. He entered the University of Pisa planning to study medicine, but shifted his focus to philosophy and mathematics. In 1589, he became a professor at Pisa for several years, during which time he demonstrated that the speed of a falling object is not proportional to its weight, as Aristotle had believed. According to some reports, Galileo conducted his research by dropping objects of different weights from the Leaning Tower of Pisa. From 1592 to 1630, Galileo was a math professor at the University of Padua, where he developed a telescope that enabled him to observe lunar mountains and craters, the four largest satellites of Jupiter and the phases of Jupiter. He also discovered that the Milky Way was made up of stars. Following the publication of his research in 1610, Galileo gained acclaim and was appointed court mathematician at Florence.
Galileo’s research led him to become an advocate of the work of the Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1573). However, the Copernican theory of a sun-centered solar system conflicted with the teachings of the powerful Roman Catholic Church, which essentially ruled Italy at the time. Church teachings contended that Earth, not the sun, was at the center of the universe. In 1633, Galileo was brought before the Roman Inquisition, a judicial system established by the papacy in 1542 to regulate church doctrine. This included the banning of books that conflicted with church teachings. The Roman Inquisition had its roots in the Inquisition of the Middle Ages, the purpose of which was to seek out and prosecute heretics, considered enemies of the state.
Today, Galileo is recognized for making important contributions to the study of motion and astronomy. His work influenced later scientists such as the English mathematician and physicist Sir Isaac Newton, who developed the law of universal gravitation. In 1992, the Vatican formally acknowledged its mistake in condemning Galileo.
(More Events on This Day in History)
- 1776 Patrick Henry named colonel of First Virginia battalion
- 2008 Actor Mel Gibson completes DUI probation
- 1831 John Rawlins born
- 1984 Chernenko becomes general secretary
- 1982 Serial killer strikes in Colorado
- 1983 Cinema burns in Turin
- 1689 William and Mary proclaimed joint sovereigns of Britain
- 1861 First Medal of Honor action
- 1945 Dresden devastated
- 2001 Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon gets 10 Oscar nominations
- 1991 Long-lost Twain manuscript authenticated
- 1915 ASCAP is founded
- 1822 Ashley advertises for western fur trappers
- 1905 Teddy Roosevelt discusses America’s race problem
- 1998 Downhill skier Hermann Maier crashes in Olympics
- 1965 Johnson approves Operation Rolling Thunder
- 1968 Additional troops ordered to South Vietnam
World War I
- 1920 League of Nations recognizes perpetual Swiss neutrality
World War II
- 1945 Firebombing of Dresden