Saturday, October 11, 2014

Fw: TheList 3708


----- Forwarded Message -----
From: Thomas G. Bauer <bauertg@yahoo.com>
To:
Sent: Monday, September 22, 2014 10:00 PM
Subject: Fw: TheList 3708

The List 3708
 
To All,
I hope your week has been going well.
Regards,
Skip
 
 
This day in Naval History September 18
 
1926 - Navy brings relief aid to Miami, FL, after a severe hurricane.
1936 - Squadron 40-T, based in the Mediterranean, established to protect U.S. interests and citizens around Iberian peninsula throughout the Spanish Civil War.
1941 - U.S. Navy ships escort eastbound British trans-Atlantic convoy for first time (Convoy HX-150). Although the U.S. Navy ships joined HX-150, which left port escorted by British ships on 16th, on night of 17 September, the official escort duty began on 18th.
1947 - National Security Act becomes effective
 
This day in Air Force History
Today, (September 18th 1947) America commemorates the  anniversary of the Air Force. Born of the revolutionary ideas of visionaries, America's Air Force was forged in 20th century combat. The occasion allows us to reflect on where we have been in a century of powered flight and five decades of space flight.
America's airmen survey the planet from airborne, space-based and cyber sensors. These airmen can cover the globe, watching, deterring and defeating enemies with speed, precision and lethality. They are equally capable of delivering humanitarian and disaster relief within hours to anyone in the world.
For the 21st century, we are again revolutionizing our Air Force by incorporating the lessons learned in a century of aerial warfare and by modernizing our force.
The nation requires an interdependent team of soldiers, sailors, airmen and Marines who can defeat a broad range of threats. Your Air Force will continue to be a vital and decisive element of that team – flying, fighting and winning.
 
 
 
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This day in History
 
 
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AOL Headline: 'Global Warming Likely to Cause Colder And Snowier Winters, Scientists Say'
By P.J. Gladnick | September 17, 2014 | 4:00 PM EDT
 
With global warming it is often heads you lose, tails we win. No matter what happens in the weather the answer is always global warming. Is it getting warmer? The answer is global warming. Is it getting colder? The answer is still global warming.
If you think I'm kidding then check out this AOL headline: Global warming likely to cause colder and snowier winters, scientists say. Author Ryan Gorman strains to explain this line of reasoning:
Scientists now believe that global warming is to blame for extreme cold snaps in North America during the winter months – and that it will only keep happening.
The "polar vortex" that plunged Canada and the U.S. into historical cold last winter is said by researchers to have occurred because melting polar ice changes weather patterns, according to a study published earlier this month.
A team of Korean and American scientists asserted in a new study that the melting ice causes the northern jet stream (upper level air flow) to shift south and bring polar air with it.
The polar ice is melting because warmer water is riding the Gulf Stream (ocean currents) from tropical regions of the Atlantic Ocean to an area north of Scandinavia.
...As the atmosphere continues to warm, and ocean water temperatures rise, this effect will only become more pronounced, researchers argue.
The surprising result of global warming, or climate change, will be colder, snowier winters across both countries.
The Eurasian supercontinent also experiences this cooling effect, according to study co-author Seong-Joon Kim.
Uh-huh. The only problem with this explanation is that the Arctic ice has dramatically increased over the past two years as you can read in this Daily Mail article published on September 2:
The most widely used measurements of Arctic ice extent are the daily satellite readings issued by the US National Snow and Ice Data Center, which is co-funded by Nasa. These reveal that – while the long-term trend still shows a decline – last Monday, August 25, the area of the Arctic Ocean with at least 15 per cent ice cover was 5.62 million square kilometres.
This was the highest level recorded on that date since 2006 (see graph, right), and represents an increase of 1.71 million square kilometres over the past two years – an impressive 43 per cent.
Other figures from the Danish Meteorological Institute suggest that the growth has been even more dramatic. Using a different measure, the area with at least 30 per cent ice cover, these reveal a 63 per cent rise – from 2.7 million to 4.4 million square kilometres.
...Crucially, the ice is also thicker, and therefore more resilient to future melting. Professor Andrew Shepherd, of Leeds University and University Coillege, London, an expert in climate satellite monitoring, said yesterday: 'It is clear from the measurements we have collected that the Arctic sea ice has experienced a significant recovery in thickness over the past year.
'It seems that an unusually cool summer in 2013 allowed more ice to survive through to last winter. This means that the Arctic sea ice pack is thicker and stronger than usual, and this should be taken into account when making predictions of its future extent.'
Yet for years, many have been claiming that the Arctic is in an 'irrevocable death spiral', with imminent ice-free summers bound to trigger further disasters. These include gigantic releases of methane into the atmosphere from frozen Arctic deposits, and accelerated global warming caused by the fact that heat from the sun will no longer be reflected back by the ice into space.
Judith Curry, professor of earth and atmospheric sciences at Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta, said last night: 'The Arctic sea ice spiral of death seems to have reversed.'
Those who just a few years ago were warning of ice-free summers by 2014 included US Secretary of State John Kerry, who made the same bogus prediction in 2009, while Mr Gore has repeated it numerous times – notably in a speech to world leaders at the UN climate conference in Copenhagen in 2009, in an effort to persuade them to agree a new emissions treaty.
The Daily Mail graphic below demonstrates the dramatic increase in Arctic Sea ice over the past two years.
 
Exit question: Is there a parallel universe in which Al Gore is blaming warmer summers on global cooling?
 
 
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The last Cosair II squadron.
 
Subject: Remembered Corsair Sky
 
Oct 17, the last Corsair squadron goes away in Greece. Three recent posts provided me food for reflection on what once was.
 
Boris sends
 
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Thanks to Carl
 
 

11 Surprising Factors That Mess With Your Memory

September 18, 2014
 
 
By Dr. Mercola
Fear of losing your mind is a pervasive, fear. Among Americans, the notion of losing mental capacity evokes twice as much fear as losing physical ability, and 60 percent of US adults say they are very or somewhat worried about memory loss.1
The good news is that your brain is a dynamic organ, constantly adapting and changing, for better or for worse. Many daily activities such as, lack of sleep can seriously interfere  with your memory the next day.
On the other hand, a healthy lifestyle will support your brain health and even encourage your brain to grow new neurons, a process known as neurogenesis or neuroplasticity.
Your brain's hippocampus, i.e. the memory center, is especially able to grow new cells and it's now known that your hippocampus regenerates throughout your entire lifetime (even into your 90s), provided you give it the tools to do so.
Many of the most powerful interventions for memory are also the simplest. So if you'd like to boost your memory, and protect it against negative changes, keep reading. The 11 factors that follow, as reported by TIME,2 all have the potential to mess with your memory (some in a good way and others a bad way).

11 Surprising Factors That Affect Your Memory

1. Thyroid Problems
Although your thyroid doesn't have a specific role in your brain, memory problems are a hallmark characteristic of thyroid disease. High or low thyroid levels (hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism) may lead to difficulty with memory and concentration. If you suspect you have thyroid trouble, please read these natural protocols for addressing thyroid dysfunction.
2. Menopause
Hot flashes and insomnia are common during menopause, and both can impair your sleep and contribute to memory loss. This is temporary and should improve when your menopause symptoms subside (try these simple solutions for stopping hot flashes).
3. Lack of Sleep
The process of brain growth, or neuroplasticity, is believed to underlie your brain's capacity to control behavior, including learning and memory. However, sleep and sleep loss modify the expression of several genes and gene products that may be important for synaptic plasticity.
Furthermore, certain forms of long-term potentiation, a neural process associated with the laying down of learning and memory, can be elicited in sleep, suggesting synaptic connections are strengthened while you slumber.
Among adults, a mid-day nap has even been found to dramatically boost and restore brainpower.3 Most adults need about eight hours of sleep a night; if you wake up feeling fatigued or fall asleep easily during the day, you probably need more sleep. You can find 33 tips to help you get the shut-eye you need here.
4. Anxiety and Depression
Increased levels of the stress hormone cortisol brought on by anxiety and depression causes your brain cells to lose synapses (which connect brain cells). This, in turn, makes it more difficult to form and retrieve memories. Allen Towfigh, MD, medical director of New York Neurology & Sleep Medicine, told TIME:4
"We don't understand the exact link, but strong evidence indicates depression, anxiety, and bipolar disease disrupts the neural circuitry involved in developing and retrieving memories…
The severity of the memory loss often mirrors the severity of the mood disorder—severe depression brings about equally severe memory loss."
5. Certain Medications
Many prescription drugs interfere with your memory function. This includes anxiety medications (Xanax, Valium, and Ativan), which hinder your brain's ability to transfer short-term memories to long-term "storage."
Others include tricyclic antidepressants, statin drugs, beta-blockers, narcotic painkillers, incontinence drugs, sleep aids, and antihistamines (such as Benadryl).
6. Smoking
Smoking impairs the blood supply to your brain, leading to memory lapses. Studies also show that smokers have a more rapid decline in brain function, including memory, than non-smokers, while smoking leads to the accumulation of abnormal proteins in your brain that interfere with processing and relaying information.5
7. Stress
An animal study revealed that higher levels of stress hormones can speed up short-term memory loss in older adults.6 The findings indicate that how your body responds to stress may be a factor that influences how your brain ages over time. Previous research has also linked chronic stress with working memory impairment.7
My favorite tool for stress management is Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT). It's an energy psychology tool that can help reprogram your body's reactions to everyday stress, thereby reducing your chances of developing adverse health effects.
8. A Higher "Infectious Burden"
People exposed to more germs, such as the cold sore virus (herpes simplex type 1), scored 25 percent lower on cognitive tests than those with a lower "infectious burden."8 Researchers concluded that past infections may contribute to cognitive impairment, perhaps due to damage to your blood vessels.
9. Green Tea
If you want to boost your memory, drink more high-quality green tea. In a study of 12 healthy volunteers, those who received a beverage containing 27.5 grams of green tea extract showed increased connectivity between the parietal and frontal cortex of the brain compared to those who drank a non-green tea beverage.9
The increased activity was correlated with improved performance on working memory tasks, and the researchers believe the results suggest green tea may be useful for treating cognitive impairments, including dementia.
10. Exercise
Exercise encourages your brain to work at optimum capacity by stimulating nerve cells to multiply, strengthening their interconnections, and protecting them from damage. During exercise nerve cells release proteins known as neurotrophic factors. One in particular, called brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), triggers numerous other chemicals that promote neural health, and directly benefits cognitive functions, including learning.
A 2010 study on primates published in Neuroscience also revealed that regular exercise not only improved blood flow to the brain, but also helped the monkeys learn new tasks twice as quickly as non-exercising monkeys. This is a benefit the researchers believe would hold true for people as well.10
In a separate one year-long study, individuals who engaged in exercise were actually growing and expanding the brain's memory center 1 percent to 2 percent per year, where typically that center would have continued to decline in size. To get the most out of your workouts, I recommend a comprehensive program that includes high-intensity interval exercise, strength training, stretching, and core work, along with regular intermittent movement.
11. Vitamin B12
B vitamins including vitamin B12 may slow brain shrinkage by as much as seven-fold in brain regions specifically known to be most impacted by Alzheimer's disease. In one study, participants taking high doses of folic acid and vitamins B6 and B12 had blood levels of homocysteine that were lowered as was the associated brain shrinkage – by up to 90 percent. The researchers noted:11
"…B vitamins lower homocysteine, which directly leads to a decrease in GM [gray matter] atrophy, thereby slowing cognitive decline. Our results show that B-vitamin supplementation can slow the atrophy of specific brain regions that are a key component of the AD [Alzheimer's disease] process and that are associated with cognitive decline."
This makes a strong case for ensuring your diet includes plenty of healthful B-vitamin sources, such as meat, poultry, eggs, dairy products, and wild-caught fish. Leafy green vegetables, beans, and peas also provide some B vitamins, but if you eat an all vegetarian or vegan diet, vitamin B12 is one of the nutrients your body is most likely deficient in. Also, when you get older, the lining of your stomach gradually loses its ability to produce hydrochloric acid, which releases vitamin B12 from your food. If you're over 50, it's safe to assume you are not absorbing vitamin B12 at an optimal level and may be at risk of deficiency.
Because vitamin B12 is the largest vitamin molecule known, it is not easily absorbed from most oral supplements. Injections or a sublingual (under your tongue) spray work far better, as they allow the large B12 molecule to be absorbed directly into your bloodstream.

Three More Little-Known Tips to Supercharge Your Memory

If you're serious about improving your memory and your cognitive function, you'll also want to know about these three important variables for brain health.
Vitamin D
Activated vitamin D receptors increase nerve growth in your brain, and researchers have also located metabolic pathways for vitamin D in the hippocampus and cerebellum of the brain, areas that are involved in planning, processing of information, and the formation of new memories. In older adults, research has shown that low vitamin D levels are associated with poorer brain function, and increasing levels may help keep older adults mentally fit. Appropriate sun exposure is all it takes to keep your levels where they need to be for healthy brain function. If this is not an option, a safe tanning bed is the next best alternative, followed by a vitamin D3 supplement.
Intermittent Fasting
Your ancient ancestors never had access to food 24/7 so your genes are optimized for periods of feast and fasting. Problem is most of us are in 24 hour feast mode.  Intermittent fasting can help your body to "reset" itself and start to burn fat instead of sugar. Further, it will help you to reduce your overall calorie consumption, which promotes brain cell growth and connectivity.
As part of a healthy lifestyle, however, I prefer an intermittent fasting schedule that simply calls for limiting your eating to a narrower window of time each day. By restricting your eating to a 6-8 hour window, you effectively fast 16-18 hours each day. To learn more, please see this previous intermittent fasting article.
Gut Health
Your gut is your "second brain," and your gut bacteria transmits information to your brain via the vagus nerve, the tenth cranial nerve that runs from your brain stem into your enteric nervous system (the nervous system of your gastrointestinal tract). There is a close connection between abnormal gut flora and abnormal brain development, and just as you have neurons in your brain, you also have neurons in your gut -- including neurons that produce neurotransmitters like serotonin, which is also found in your brain and is linked to mood.
Quite simply, your gut health can impact your brain function, psyche, and behavior, as they are interconnected and interdependent in a number of different ways. In addition to avoiding sugar, one of the best ways to support gut health is to consume beneficial bacteria. You can use a probiotic supplement for this, but I'm particularly fond of using fermented vegetables, because they can deliver extraordinarily high levels of beneficial bacteria. Most people aren't aware that in a healthy serving of sauerkraut – two to three ounces or so – you're getting the equivalent of nearly 100 capsules of the highest-potency probiotic you can buy. It's clearly one of the most cost-effective alternatives.

And Remember the Most Important Factor of All... Your Diet

The foods you eat – and don't eat – play a crucial role in your memory. Fresh vegetables are essential, as are healthy fats and avoiding sugar and grain carbohydrates. You can find detailed information about nine foods for brainpower here. For instance, curry, celery, broccoli, cauliflower, and walnuts contain antioxidants and other compounds that protect your brain health and may even stimulate the production of new brain cells. Increasing your animal-based omega-3 fat intake and reducing consumption of damaged omega-6 fats (think processed vegetable oils) in order to balance your omega-3 to omega-6 ratio is also important.
I prefer krill oil to fish oil, as krill oil also contains astaxanthin, which not only protects the omega-3 fats from oxidation but also is particularly to support brain health. Coconut oil is another healthful fat for brain function. According to research by Dr. Mary Newport, just over two tablespoons of coconut oil (about 35 ml or 7 level teaspoons) would supply you with the equivalent of 20 grams of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), which is indicated as either a preventative measure against degenerative neurological diseases or as a treatment for an already established case.
[-] Sources and References
·         TIME August 29, 2014
 
 
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Law enforcement bulletin warned of ISIS urging jihad attacks on US soil
 
A law enforcement bulletin obtained by FoxNews.com warned that Islamic State fighters have increased calls for "lone wolves" to attack U.S. soldiers in America in recent months, citing one tweet that called for jihadists to find service members' addresses online and then "show up and slaughter them."
There will be "a continued call - by Western fighters in Syria and terrorist organizations - for lone offender attacks against U.S. military facilities and personnel," warned a July law enforcement intelligence bulletin from the Central Florida Intelligence Exchange, a state-run agency that gathers, assesses and shares threat information and works with the Department of Homeland Security. "These threats will most likely increase should the U.S. or its allies attack the Islamic State of Iraq and Sham (ISIS) in Syria or Iraq."
In one example cited in the bulletin, a British jihadist encouraged radicals still living in the West to use Facebook and LinkedIn to find and target soldiers.
"You could literally search for soldiers, find their town, photos of them, look for address in Yellowbook or something," the tweet read. "Then show up and slaughter them."
The bulletin came out long before Tuesday's indictment of an upstate New York man on a raft of terror-related charges, including attempting to kill "officers and employees of the United States. Mufid Elfgeeh, 30, of Rochester, was indicted Tuesday by a federal grand jury on three counts of attempting to provide material support and resources to Islamic State. Elfgeeh was arrested in late May in a Walmart parking lot after a sting in which an FBI informant offered to sell him guns and silencers, which Elfgeeh allegedly wanted to use to kill returning American troops as well as Shiite Muslims living in the region.
Killing U.S. troops on American soil is is an increasing focus of  jihadists, according to the bulletin, titled "Continued Threat to Military Personnel from Al-Qaida Inspired Homegrown Violent Extremists." It was sent out on July 8, 2014 "in response to recent social media messaging from Western fighters in Syria calling for attacks against "soldiers in the West." Instead of luring radicalized Americans to the Middle East, Islamic State will likely encourage them to stay home and kill U.S. soldiers here, the bulletin warned.
"U.S.-based [Home-Grown Violent Extremists] could be inspired by this rhetoric to turn their attention towards carrying out attacks at home," the bulletin states.
The radical rhetoric is delivered via social media, where Islamic State operatives have long exhorted westerners to get on a plane and come join the battle. But terrorists now believe they can have a powerful effect from afar just by inspiring attacks inside the U.S.
"In recent Twitter posts, foreign fighters in Syria have encouraged Muslims in the West to target soldiers with spontaneous attacks using small arms (i.e. knives and guns)," the bulletin said.
It listed several examples of tweets posted in late June that specifically mention interest in attacking Western military personnel. In one series of tweets a British fighter formerly with Jabhat al Nusra lamented the terrorist infighting between Islamic State and groups affiliated with Al Qaeda.
"I'm realizing bickering about internal politics is taking up our time too much, the enemies are working what's stopping you from something like learning how to make explosives or learning shooting, or killing vulnerable soldiers right now? (To the bros in the West)."
The bulletin also cited an uptick in chatter on Internet forums calling for attacks on Western military targets, with many referring to Fort Hood shooter Nidal Hassan, who killed 13 service members at the Texas Army base in 2009 in a case the Obama administration still labels as an example of "workplace violence," and not terrorism. Hasan recently announced from prison, where he is awaiting execution, he wanted to join Islamic State.
A commenter on the Ansar Al-Mujahideen English Forum reposted a 2009 statement from radicalized American Adam Gadahn, now a senior Al Qaeda leader, praising  Hasan.
"The Mujahid brother Nidal Hasan, lightly armed but with a big heart, a strong will and a confident step, again brought into focus the weaknesses and vulnerabilities of America...and most significantly, the Mujahid brother Nidal Hasan is a pioneer, a trailblazer and a role model who has opened the door, lit a path and shown the way forward for every Muslim among the unbelievers and yearns to discharge his duty to Allah and play a part in the defense of Islam and Muslims against the savage, heartless and bloody Zionist Crusader assault on our religion, sacred places and homelands," read the statement.
The intelligence center assessed in July " "that military personnel will likely be targeted individually in spontaneous 'ambush' style attacks similar to the May, 2013, machete attack against British soldier Drummer Lee Rigby in the U.K.
 
 
 
 
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Item Number:1 Date: 09/18/2014 ALBANIA - ROYAL MARINES WRAP UP ALBANIAN LION EXERCISE WITH ASSAULT (SEP 18/RN)  ROYAL NAVY PRESS RELEASE -- British Royal Marines have been working on amphibious skills during a training exercise in Albania, reports the Royal Navy.   Alpha and Bravo companies from 40 Commando completed an amphibious landing before conducting a mock attack on the Porto Palermo Submarine Base.   The goal was to capture the base from a simulated opposing force, according to a navy release on Wednesday.   Later, Delta Company launched a separate attack on the mock enemy holding higher ground after being landed by Chinook helicopters.   Albanian commandos joined the Royal Marines for the last part of the exercise.   An Armored Support Troop also practiced driving Viking vehicles through the marshy terrain on the Kepi I Pallit peninsula, said the release.  
 
Item Number:2 Date: 09/18/2014 AUSTRALIA - SYNCHRONIZED RAIDS THWART BEHEADING PLOT IN SYDNEY, BRISBANE (SEP 18/AUSBC)  AUSTRALIAN BROADCASTING CORPORATION -- More than 800 Australian police have taken part in raids of houses and vehicles in and around Sydney and Brisbane, with the authorities trying to stop a jihadist beheading plot, reports Australia's ABC News.   The raids, made before dawn on Thursday, were aimed at the most senior Australian member of the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS), said officials.   This ISIS leader, identified as Mohammad Ali Baryalei, reportedly ordered jihadists in Australia to carry out a campaign of random public beheadings in Sydney and Brisbane.   The killings were to be recorded and the videos distributed publicly, reported Fox News.   Fifteen people were detained in the operation, said police. Most of them were said to be of Afghan descent.   "The law enforcement authorities became aware of information in May of this year that a group of people in Sydney were at least talking about plans to carry out random attacks on individuals in Australia and they were kept under surveillance," federal Attorney General George Brandis told Macquarie Radio.  
 
  Item Number:3 Date: 09/18/2014 AZERBAIJAN - PRESIDENT EYES HELICOPTERS, COMBAT VEHICLES (SEP 18/JDW)  JANES DEFENCE WEEKLY -- Russian officials say Azerbaijan's president has expressed interested in buying Kamov Ka-52 Alligator Hokum-B helicopters and BMPT-72 Terminator 2 fire support combat vehicles, reports Jane's Defence Weekly.   President Ilham Aliyev "expressed his satisfaction and directed his subordinates to further study, in association with the Russian party, the prospects of work on the" systems, said a Rosoboronexport official at the ADEX 2014 defence exhibition in Baku.   The Russian state export firm had proposed an in-depth modernization of Azerbaijan's T-72 tanks to the BMPT-72 configuration, the official said.   Moscow has been delivering a major batch of military materiel to Baku under a package of agreements signed in 2010. Deliveries are set to conclude in 2017.   That deal included three battalions (about 100 units) of T-90S main battle tanks, three battalions (about 100 units) of BMP-3 infantry fighting vehicles, a battalion (18 units) of MSTA-S self-propelled artillery systems (SPAs), a battalion (18 launchers) of Smerch multiple launch rocket systems, a battalion (18 units) of Vena SPAs and a battery (6 units) of TOS-1A heavy flame-throwing systems.   Azerbaijan also purchased BREM-1M armored recovery and technical maintenance vehicles and IMR-3M counter-obstacle vehicles to support the tanks, said Russian officials.   In 2010, a contract was also signed to supply Baku with 24 Mi-35M strike helicopters, but that deal is still in flux, the Rosoboronexport official said
 
  Item Number:4 Date: 09/18/2014 CHINA - NEW COOLING SYSTEM FOR TANKS HELPS TROOPS INSIDE (SEP 18/XIN)  XINHUA -- The Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) has developed a new climate-control system for its tanks, reports Xinhua, China's state news agency.   For some time, tanks have been equipped with cooling systems for onboard electronics, but not for soldier comfort.   The new system, designed by a research division under the PLA General Armament Dept., can bring air currents from "all directions" through eight outlets circling the interior of the tank, reported the PLA Daily.   The system is designed to keep internal temperatures about 5 degrees Celsius cooler than the outside temperature.   Engineers say internal temperatures in China's tanks can reach 122 degrees Fahrenheit (50 degrees Celsius) in part due to the heat generated by electronics.   The new cooling system is based on an improvement in the electricity supply system, according to the PLA Daily.  
 
  Item Number:5 Date: 09/18/2014 COLOMBIA - POLICE KILLED IN FARC AMBUSH CONVOY IN URABA (SEP 18/AFP)  AGENCE FRANCE-PRESSE -- Officials in Colombia say at least seven police officers have been killed and seven wounded after gunmen from the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) attacked their convoy in the northwestern part of the country, reports Agence France-Presse.   The attack took place on Tuesday in the remote northwestern region of Uraba, according to security officials.   That region borders Panama and has been a haven for armed groups since the 1960s in part because of its mountainous terrain and tropical forests.   "I have given instruction to all the heads of our military forces, reinforcing the need to continue the offensive against" the FARC and other criminal organizations, President Juan Manuel Santos said.   Violence has not ended even though the government has been holding peace talks with the FARC. Bogota has also announced preliminary talks with the country's second-largest guerrilla group, the National Liberation Army (ELN).  
 
Item Number:6 Date: 09/18/2014 EGYPT - STEP TAKEN TOWARD $3.5 BILLION ARMS DEAL WITH RUSSIA (SEP 18/RIAN)  RUSSIAN INFORMATION AGENCY NEWS -- Russian and Egyptian officials have reached a preliminary agreement on an arms contract worth up to US$3.5 billion, reports RIA Novosti.   Alexander Fomin, the director of the Russian federal service for military technological cooperation, confirmed the deal on Wednesday at the Africa Aerospace and Defense show in South Africa.   The exports will include small arms, air defense systems and artillery, according to Russian defense industry officials.   Earlier this year, it was reported that Egypt was seeking to buy US$2 billion worth of weapons from Russia with Saudi Arabian support, noted Interfax-AVN (Russia).  
 
  Item Number:7 Date: 09/18/2014 GUINEA-BISSAU - VAZ REPLACES ARMY CHIEF WITH HEAD OF PRESIDENTIAL GUARD (SEP 18/DAILYTIMES)  DAILY TIMES -- President Jose Mario Vaz has removed the army chief in Guinea-Bissau, reports the Daily Times (Nigeria).   Gen. Antonio Indjai had led the armed forces since 2009 and led a 2012 coup. Indjai has also been targeted by U.S. authorities who have charged him of involvement in drug-trafficking.   No reason was given for the firing.   Gen. Biague Na Ntan, a confidant of the president, was named as his replacement, reported Reuters. He is from the same Balanta ethnic group as Indjai. About 25 percent of the population and 60 percent of the military and security forces are Balanta.   The new army chief has headed the customs service and presidential guard.  
 
  Item Number:8 Date: 09/18/2014 INDIA - DEFENSE RESEARCH HEAD EYES WEAPON SYSTEMS FOR POTENTIAL EXPORT (SEP 18/HT)  HINDUSTAN TIMES -- India's Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO) wants to enter the market to export weapons, reports the Hindustan Times.   The agency has identified 15 weapon systems that could kickstart India's efforts to sell military equipment abroad, said Avinash Chander, the DRDO chief.   Domestically built missiles, such as the Astra air-to-air, Akash surface-to-air, Prahar surface-to-surface and BrahMos cruise missiles, will form the centerpiece of the potential export campaign, he said in an interview.   The organization head said that systems that could be for sale include the Tejas light combat aircraft, Arjun Mk 2 tanks, sonars, airborne early warning and control system, unmanned systems and battlefield radars
 
  Item Number:9 Date: 09/18/2014 INDIA - U.S. FORCES JOIN MOUNTAIN COUNTERTERRORISM EXERCISE IN UTTARAKHAND (SEP 18/PTI)  PRESS TRUST OF INDIA -- Indian and U.S. military personnel have begun a bilateral defense exercise in India's northern Uttarakhand state, reports the Press Trust of India.   Yudh Abhyas, which started on Wednesday, is the 10th in a series of combined exercises that will run until Sept. 30, said a government release.   The training focuses on counterinsurgency and counter-terrorism operations in mountainous terrain, said the Indian army.   The U.N. peacekeeping scenario in the exercise involves a brigade headquarters, infantry company and a detachment of special operations forces.   Both U.S. and Indian forces will plan and execute a series of tactical drills to eliminate potential threats in peacekeeping missions, noted the release.  
 
  Item Number:10 Date: 09/18/2014 IRAQ - KURDISH FORCES NEED MORE HELP BEFORE ASSAULTING MOSUL, SAYS MINISTER (SEP 18/AFP)  AGENCE FRANCE-PRESSE -- An Iraqi minister who also is a Kurdish leader says peshmerga forces are not yet capable of retaking the city of Mosul from jihadist fighters, reports Agence France-Presse.   The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) captured Mosul on June 10, kicking off a large-scale offensive in Iraq.   "A certain number of conditions need to be met before launching any battle, and they are not met yet," Finance Minister Roz Nuri Shaways said Wednesday.   Shaways is also a senior commander in the Kurdistan Democratic Party, one of the two major groups in Iraqi Kurdistan.   Kurdiah peshmerga forces under his command retook seven Christian villages from ISIS in the Nineveh plain, about 30 km (18.6 mi) east of Mosul.   "The balance of power is still in the enemy's favor," he said. The Kurds need more equipment, weapons and ammunition, as well as political support, before an assault on Mosul could begin, he said
 
Item Number:11 Date: 09/18/2014 ISRAEL - ARROW II TEST MISSED TARGET, CONCLUDES ANALYSIS (SEP 18/DN)  DEFENSE NEWS -- Israeli experts say a Sept. 9 test of the Arrow II missile defense system was a failure, reports Defense News.   Nearly a week of analysis concluded that the Arrow II successfully acquired and tracked its target, but failed to destroy it, officials said on Wednesday.   The Israeli government said immediately after the test that the results were "inconclusive."   The miss was blamed on software issues that should be easily corrected.   The Arrow II is being co-developed with the U.S. Missile Defense Agency.  
 
Item Number:12 Date: 09/18/2014 NIGERIA - AMONG FLURRY OF ATTACKS, BOKO HARAM GUNMEN KILL 15 AT KANO COLLEGE (SEP 18/LEADERSHIP)  LEADERSHIP -- At least 15 students have been killed and 35 wounded at a college in northern Nigeria by suspected Boko Haram militants, reports the Leadership (Abuja).   Guns and explosives were used in Wednesday's attack on the federal government college in the city of Kano, witnesses said.   Police said they killed two of the attackers, who were wearing suicide vests and firing indiscriminately, Reuters reported.   The attack was one of several that day that left 74 people dead and hundreds injured nationwide, said officials.   A suspected Boko Haram attack in Adamawa state killed five people, including the uncle of the acting state governor. Three others were reportedly killed in northwestern Kebbi state.   Gunmen also stormed the Fadan-Karshi villages in Kaduna state, killing 51 people, including a Nigerian soldier, said Nigerian officials.  
 
  Item Number:13 Date: 09/18/2014 SWEDEN - SAAB SELECTED TO SUPPLY SOFTKILL COUNTERMEASURES FOR UNNAMED CUSTOMER (SEP 18/SAAB)  SAAB -- Sweden-based defense company Saab says it has received a contract for the company's latest softkill countermeasures system.   The US$6.7 million contract covers the LEDS-50 Mk 2 system, said a Saab release on Wednesday. The customer was not made public.   The system can detect the latest generation laser threats and automatically deploy countermeasures, said Saab officials.   This was the launch order for the system, according to a company release.   The development and production of the LEDS-50 Mk 2 takes place at Saab in Centurion, South Africa
 
Item Number:14 Date: 09/18/2014 SYRIA - DRONE SPOTTED ABOVE ISIS POSITIONS (SEP 18/REU)  REUTERS -- At least one surveillance drone has been seen for the first time over jihadist-controlled territory in northern Syria, say opposition activists cited by Reuters.   It was not immediately clear who was operating a drone over Aleppo province, said the U.K.-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights on Thursday. Multiple sources have reported seeing the unmanned aircraft, according to Rami Abdel-Rahman, who runs the observatory.   The drone was seen over the towns of al-Bab and Manbij. ISIS terrorists reportedly evacuated buildings in that area. Other drones have been noted over Raqqa in northeastern Syria, said the activist group.   Near the border with Turkey, fighters from the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) advanced on a group of Kurdish villages near the city of Ayn al-Arab (also known as Kobani), said the bservatory.   At least 21 villages have fallen under ISIS control as the group is encircling the city, said the head of the observatory. ISIS is said to be using tanks, rockets and artillery in the attack.  
 
Item Number:15 Date: 09/18/2014 UNITED KINGDOM - WITH VOTE LOOMING, U.S. MARINES CARRY OUT JOINT EXERCISE IN SCOTLAND (SEP 18/WP)  WASHINGTON POST -- U.S. Marines have been taking part in joint military exercises with their British counterparts in Scotland on the eve of a Scottish independence vote, reports the Washington Post.   On Wednesday, Royal and U.S. Marines conducted Exercise Tartan Eagle 14. The event has been held since 1994 in the United States and Scotland, according to U.S. Marine Corps Forces Europe and Africa.   Images from the event depict weapons range training. Such drills in the past have also included "convoy operations, anti-ambush strategies and navigational classes," as noted in a 2009 release.   Voters in Scotland began voting Thursday in an independence referendum that also has military implications.   Among the many potential points that would likely require negotiations, should the Scots vote for independence, is the fact that the British navy's nuclear submarine port at Faslane and nuclear warhead depot at nearby Coulport in western Scotland is the only Trident base in the U.K., as noted by the Guardian.  
 
  Item Number:16 Date: 09/18/2014 USA - AIR FORCE SEES HYPERSONIC AIRCRAFT, LASERS AS KEYS TO FUTURE (SEP 18/NDM)  NATIONAL DEFENSE MAGAZINE -- The head of the Air Force Research Laboratory says he expects hypersonic aircraft and lasers to be among the key weapons of the future for the service, reports National Defense magazine.   A test with a hypersonic aircraft may take place within five years and the technology could be applied to cruise missiles by the 2020s, Maj. Gen. Tom Masiello said on Monday at the Air Force Association's conference outside Washington, D.C.   Momentum for the technology has been building following the successful test of the X-51 WaveRider hypersonic vehicle last year, he said. During that trial, the vehicle reached speeds of Mach 5.1 and traveled 230 nm in about six minutes.   A hypersonic aircraft would give the military the ability to hit time-sensitive targets and could be used in an area denial environment, said the general.   The Air Force also plans to integrate directed energy weapons on fighter jets by the 2030s
 
  Item Number:17 Date: 09/18/2014 USA - DEFENSE CONTRACTORS TARGETED BY CHINESE HACKERS, SAYS SENATE REPORT (SEP 18/DN)  DEFENSE NEWS -- Congressional investigators have found that Chinese government-backed hackers have accessed the computer networks of private contractors working with the U.S. Transportation Command (TRANSCOM), according to a U.S. Senate report cited by Defense News.   A total of 20 breaches were reported in networks that contained sensitive data about U.S. military logistics, noted an investigative report by the Senate Armed Services Committee.   The year-long probe, concluded in March but only made public on Wednesday, found the TRANSCOM was aware of only two out of at least 20 such cyber intrusions within a single year, reported Reuters.   The network penetrations "show vulnerabilities in the military's system to deploy troops and equipment in a crisis," the report's summary says.   The intrusions took place between 2008 and 2012, according to the report.  
 
  Item Number:18 Date: 09/18/2014 USA - ISIS CONTINUES RECRUITING AMERICANS, SAY OFFICIALS (SEP 18/REU)  REUTERS -- Senior U.S. security officials say the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) continues to pick up support from U.S. citizens, Reuters reports.   The director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, James Comey, Homeland Security Secretary Jeh Johnson and National Counterterrorism Center chief Matt Olsen testified Wednesday before before the House Homeland Security Committee.   Americans radicalized by online propaganda could pose the greatest threat to the United States, they said.   The group's "widespread use of social media and growing online support intensified following the commencement of U.S. airstrikes in Iraq" in August, Comey said.   The U.S. military has launched 167 airstrikes against ISIS positions in Iraq, reported AFP.   The terrorist group is also trying to recruit from 2,000 Westerners who have traveled to Syria, including at least 100 Americans, said the officials.   ISIS wants to attack Americans just because they are Americans, Johnson commented
 
Item Number:19 Date: 09/18/2014 USA - INFORMATION-SHARING SYSTEM FOR AIR FORCE PASSES FINAL DESIGN REVIEW (SEP 18/BOEING)  BOEING -- Boeing has announced the completion of the final design review for a U.S. Air Force communications program.   The service's Talon HATE system combines data from fighter networks, national sources and joint command-and-control assets.   The program combines information from fighter networks, national sources and joint command-and-control assets, according to a Boeing release on Tuesday.   The system is initially designed to be carried in a pod on F-15C fighters.   The program involved the integration of the Intra Flight Data Link on the F-22 fighter within the Multifunctional Distribution System-JTRS (MIDS-J). The latter serves as a host for multiple simultaneous communications waveforms that are needed for Talon HATE forward operations, according to the release on Tuesday.   During the final design review, Boeing demonstrated communications interoperability between the platforms using those systems, said the release.   Several Talon HATE systems are due to be delivered to operational squadrons in 2015, according to Boeing.  
 
Item Number:20 Date: 09/18/2014 USA - MILITANTS USING URBAN COVER TO AVOID AIRSTRIKES, SAYS DEMPSEY (SEP 18/LAT)  LOS ANGELES TIMES -- A top military officer says Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) militants have been seeking cover in urban areas to avoid being hit by U.S. warplanes, reports the Los Angeles Times.   At the same time, there has been an increase in suicide and improvised explosive device attacks, said Gen. Martin Dempsey, the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.   The dispersal comes after less than a month of U.S. airstrikes.   The tactic will make it "a little tougher" for combat jets to target the fighters, Dempsey told reporters on Tuesday.   The Dept. of Defense also plans to expand the types of targets authorized for airstrikes, with a focus on ISIS leaders, he said.   President Obama was expected to approve the plan on Wednesday during a visit to U.S. Central Command headquarters in Tampa, Fla
 
  Item Number:21 Date: 09/18/2014 USA - NAVY MOVES TO INACTIVATE LARGE SUPPLY SHIP (SEP 18/NTIMES)  NAVY TIMES -- The U.S. Navy has decided to inactivate one of the Military Sealift Command's four TAOE-type fast combat support ships, reports the Navy Times.   "We've been told to continue with the program of record for the USNS Bridge and continue her on course for inactivation," a command spokesman said Wednesday.   The replenishment ships have a full load displacement of over 50,000 tons, a length of 754 feet and a crew of 170 civilian mariners. They commonly carry fuel, ammunition and other stores for deployed carrier strike groups and warships at sea.   The ships require one of the largest crews in the command's fleet and are powered by gas turbines that are costly to run. Both factors have made the the ships targets of budget planners in Washington, but the Navy has been fighting to keep them, said officials.   The Bridge, the youngest of the four, was scheduled to be inactivated at the end of this month. The Navy originally placed her into a 45-day reserve operating status at Bremerton, Wash., but on Tuesday ordered the ship to be mothballed.   Another ship, the Supply, is scheduled to leave active service in a year. The remaining two ships, Rainier and Arctic, face uncertain futures
 
Item Number:22 Date: 09/18/2014 USA - PAY BOOST ON THE WAY FOR SOME NUCLEAR PERSONNEL, SAYS AIR FORCE SECRETARY (SEP 18/S&S)  STARS AND STRIPES -- Air Force Secretary Deborah Lee James has announced plans to increase pay for missileers and some enlisted airmen, reports the Stars and Stripes.   Starting Oct. 1, officers at nuclear missile launch control centers will receive an additional $300 per month in incentive pay, James said on Monday.   Airmen in some enlisted career fields throughout the nuclear enterprise will also receive up to $300 monthly in special duty assignment pay. No details were provided on the enlisted fields to be eligible.   The raise is part of an Air Force effort to address "systemic" issues within the nuclear enterprise. Over the past year, the Air Force has had to deal with widespread cheating on nuclear launch tests and low morale among airmen in the nuclear field.  
 
  Item Number:23 Date: 09/18/2014 USA - SUBMARINER FOGGO NOMINATED TO COMMAND 6TH FLEET (SEP 18/S&S)  STARS AND STRIPES -- President Barack Obama has nominated a submariner as the new commander of the Navy's 6th Fleet, which operates in Europe, Africa, the Atlantic Ocean and the Indian Ocean, reports the Stars and Stripes.   Rear Adm. James Foggo III was named Wednesday to lead the 6th Fleet and local NATO Maritime forces, said the White House. The position requires Senate confirmation.   Foggo will replace Vice Adm. Philip Davidson, who has been tapped for promotion to admiral and commander of Fleet Forces Command in Virginia, said defense officials.   The 6th Fleet is based in Naples, Italy. Foggo was stationed there previously as submarine group commander and deputy fleet commander. In that capacity, he served as operations officer for the U.S. joint task force that conducted airstrikes against Libya in 2011.   Foggo has spent most of his career on attack submarines, including the Sea Devil, Narwhal and Oklahoma City. He also served on the ballistic missile submarine Mariano G. Vallejo, reported the Navy Times.  
 
  Item Number:24 Date: 09/18/2014 USA - TOP LEADERS ON DESTROYER LOSE JOBS OVER 'COMMAND CLIMATE' (SEP 18/NTIMES)  NAVY TIMES -- The U.S. Navy has removed the commander, former executive officer and the command master chief of the destroyer James E. Williams, reports the Navy Times.   Cmdr. Curtis Calloway, Cmdr. Ed Handley and CMC Travis Biswell were transferred to Navy Surface Atlantic until an investigation into the "command climate" aboard the ship is completed, said a Navy release on Wednesday.   Capt. Anthony Simmons, deputy commodore of Destroyer Squadron 2 assumed command on Tuesday, with Calloway being relieved at sea in the midst of a deployment, reported Business Insider.   The Naval Criminal Investigative Service is conducting a separate investigation into a liberty incident that took place in the Sixth Fleet area of operations, said a Navy official. Further details were not provided.   The Williams is deployed on an eight-month mission to U.S. Africa Command, reported USNI News.
 

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